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Deposition: Kurt J. Lesker E-Beam Evaporators

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Left: KJL 2 (PVD75 system)
Right: KJL 1 (LAB18 system)

We have two Kurt J. Lesker high vacuum e-beam evaporators, a LAB18 and a PVD75 system, available in the Nanopatterning Cleanroom.

Features, capabilities, and restrictions in common:

  • Load lock system for cleanliness and faster pump down times (10-15 minutes).
  • Base pressures at 1 E-7 torr, down to 2 E-8 torr with gettering.
  • Automated pre-programmed deposition recipes for standard use. Custom recipes and manual control available for advanced users.
  • Quartz crystal monitors for deposition rate and thickness monitoring.
  • KRI gridless end-hall Ar ion source for cleaning the substrate immediately prior to metal deposition.
  • Source to substrate throw distance of 24 inches which reduces side wall accumulation for better liftoff results.
  • Samples with patterned resists for lift-off processes allowed.
  • Both systems have 8 crucible pockets for different materials. Currently allowed materials listed below. Contact staff about adding new materials.
  • Precious metals (Au, Pd, Pt) are charged separately from the hourly usage of the instrument.
  • Maximum deposition thickness of 200 nm. For thicker depositions, contact staff in advance.
  • Deposition rates allowed from 0.2 A/s to 5 A/s, with defaults at 1.0 and 3.0 A/s. For faster deposition rates, contact staff.


Notable differences:

 KJL Evaporator 1 (LAB 18)KJL Evaporator 2 (PVD75)
Available SourcesAg, Al, Au, Cr, Cu, Ge, Hf, In, Nb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Sc, Ti, VAl, Nb, Ti (restricted for superconductor materials)
Sources Explicitly Not Allowed Fe, Co, Ni, Cr, Au, In
Substrate SizesSmall pieces up to one (1) 6" waferSmall pieces up to one (1) 6" or 8" wafer, or three (3) 4" wafers
Load Lock StyleAntechamber with transfer armTop substrate chamber serves as load lock
Substrate Tilt and RotationTilt only (149o tilt range)Tilt (153o tilt range) and rotation (up to 20 RPM)
Substrate TemperatureWater-cooled fixtureNo active temperature control (cooling or heating)
Reactive GasesNoneDynamic and Static Oxidation (O2)

Research Examples

Lines written by the JEOL e-beam lithography system. Metal was deposited and then a lift-off process was used to remove the metal from the regions where the e-beam resist remained.
Cross shaped patterns of metal sandwiching an oxide layer. The metal was depositing in the Lesker Evaporator.

Getting Started and Training Information

Trainings for KJL Evaporator 2 are currently limited to users already qualified on KJL Evaporator 1. Please email directly if you are interested in KJL 2 but are not qualified on KJL 1.

In order to become a qualified user of KJL Evaporator 1, you need to follow each of these steps in the order as listed here:

  1. Complete the process to become a lab member of SNSF and follow the instructions to activate a Badger account.
  2. Complete the process to become a Nanopatterning Cleanroom user.
  3. Review the Resources section below for an introduction to physical vapor deposition and the KJL Evaporator, its capabilities, and how to operate it.
  4. Pass (100%) and complete the KJL Evaporator Review Quiz and New User Intake Form. An email is automatically sent to staff once you have completed the form.
  5. Staff will reach out to schedule a one-on-one in-person training session. Training is typically a single 1-hour session. It is highly recommended to review the SOP and training videos prior to the training session.
  6. Ar Ion Source Attachment Training:
    • The normal KJL Evaporator training is a prerequisite to the Ar Ion Source training. If you had specified that you want to use the Ar ion source in the KJL Evaporator User Intake Form, NPC Staff will train you on it during the normal KJL Evaporator training. If you did not specify that you want to use the Ar ion source in the User Intake Form, please email to schedule a training time (~15 minutes).

Auto-disqualification: Badger will auto-disqualify you on the KJL evaporator if you do not use it in a 2 year period. This is to keep an up-to-date record of active, qualified users on the KJL evaporator in Badger and to ensure users are aware of changes and updates to the evaporator. To get re-qualified (re-training not necessarily required), please email


Specific to SNSF Nanopatterning Cleanroom:

For KJL Evaporator 1:
KJL Evaporator #1 - Standard Operating Procedures
KJL Evaporator #1 - Quick Guide
KJL Evaporator #1 - Troubleshooting Guide
KJL Evaporator #1 - Ar Ion Source Quick Guide
KJL Evaporator - Training Video Playlist
KJL Evaporator - Checking Out Precious Metals

For KJL Evaporator 2:
KJL Evaporator #2 - Quick Guide
KJL Evaporator #2 - Troubleshooting Guide

General E-Beam Evaporators:
Online SEM edX course, from Nano@Stanford. The Evaporation module is located under Physical Vapor Deposition.
Coursera: E-Beam Evaporation Basic Function
Coursera: E-Beam Evaporation Sample Deposition Demonstration
UC Berkeley Marvell NanoLab Evaporator Training Class - the two videos provides a very good introduction to e-beam evaporation, but does include some information specific to their facility.

Stanford Nanofabrication Facility (SNF) Deposition Tools