XRD: PANalytical Empyrean
The Empyrean X-ray Diffractometer from PANalytical B.V. is a multipurpose research diffractometer that can be used in powder, medium-resolution and high-resolution configurations and is ideally suited for in situ/operando x-ray studies of the materials in controlled environments and as they evolve during operation. It offers all relevant diffraction geometries: reflection, transmission, capillary, microdiffraction and Debye-Scherrer. The diffractometer uses exchangeable x-ray tubes from softer (Cu source, 8.04 keV) to medium (Mo source, 17.44 keV) up to hard (Ag source, 22.10 keV) radiations. It has the ability to measure all sample types – from powders to thin films, from nanomaterials to solid objects – on a single instrument. Thanks to the PreFIX concept of the optical components and sample stages, users can vary the operation modes in a few minutes, without the need to realign the system. Such a versatility makes it possible to carry out specialized in situ/operando experiments. The instrument offers a range of non-ambient environments which are fully controlled by the instrument’s software.
Following applications are available on the Empyrean diffractometer:
- Powder diffraction using flat and capillary samples in either reflection or transmission geometries employing 0D, 1D and 2D detector modes.
- Medium- and high-resolution x-ray diffraction of thin films including symmetrical, asymmetrical and grazing incidence diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, texture, stress, rocking curves, fast reciprocal lattice maps.
- Non-ambient x-ray diffraction in transmission and reflection geometries in different atmospheres and vacuum up to 1200 C.
- X-ray diffraction studies of solid state and solid state-gas reactions in different gas environments up to 900 C and 10 bar.
- Medium- and high-resolution x-ray diffraction studies of thin films and layered materials in the temperature range of 173 – 770 K (-100 – 500 C).
- Cu, Mo and Ag x-ray sources.
- GaliPIX3D detector providing nearly 100% absorption efficiency at all wavelengths. Proportional and scintillator detectors.
- Theta-theta goniometer delivering 0.0001o step size and ±0.01o linearity in 2q over the whole angular range with the resolution for powder materials of FWHM = 0.026o in 2q.
- Ambient sample stages: reflection-transmission spinner, capillary spinner, quarter-circle cradle with chi, phi, X, Y and Z motions, quarter-circle cradle with chi, phi and Z motions for large samples.
- Non-ambient Anton Paar sample stages: high-temperature oven chamber HTK 1200N, reaction chamber XRK 900, domed cooling-heating stage for four-circle goniometer DCS 500.
In order to become a qualified user on the PANalytical Empyrean XRD, you need to follow each of these steps in the order as listed here: